Diabetes drug makes brain cells grow

metformin-helps-grow-neurons
metformin-helps-grow-neurons Metformin helps grow neurons

Research shows that that diabetes drug metformin encourages the growth of new neurons in the brain and makes individuals smarter metformin-helps-grow-neurons Metformin helps grow neurons
Singapore: A study published in Cell Stem Cell revealed that diabetes drug metformin encourages the growth of new neurons in the brain. The research also revealed that the neural effects of the drug also make mice smarter. The discovery is an important step toward therapies that aim to repair the brain not by introducing new stem cells but rather by spurring those that are already present into action, says the study’s lead author Dr Freda Miller of the University of Toronto-affiliated Hospital for Sick Children. The fact that it’s a drug that is so widely used and so safe makes the news all that much better. Earlier work by Dr Miller’s team highlighted a pathway known as aPKC-CBP for its essential role in telling neural stem cells where and when to differentiate into mature neurons. As it happened, others had found before them that the same pathway is important for the metabolic effects of the drug metformin, but in liver cells. “We put two and two together,” Dr Miller says. If metformin activates the CBP pathway in the liver, they thought, maybe it could also do that in neural stem cells of the brain to encourage brain repair. The new evidence lends support to that promising idea in both mouse brains and human cells. Mice taking metformin not only showed an increase in the birth of new neurons, but they were also better able to learn the location of a hidden platform in a standard maze test of spatial learning.
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SINGAPORE

Coordinates: 1.3°N 103.8°E

Republic of Singapore

新加坡共和国 (Chinese)
Republik Singapura  (Malay)
சிங்கப்பூர் குடியரசு  (Tamil)
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: 
“Majulah Singapura” (Malay)
“Onward, Singapore”
Anthem: Majulah Singapura
Onward, Singapore

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Location of  Singapore  (red)
Location of  Singapore  (red)
Capital Singapore
(Downtown Core, Central)a
1°17′N 103°50′E
Official languages
Official scripts
Demonym Singaporean
Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic
 – President Tony Tan Keng Yam
 – Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong
 – Speaker of Parliament Halimah Yacob
 – Chief Justice Sundaresh Menon
Legislature Parliament
Formation
 – Founding 6 February 1819[1]
 – Self-government 3 June 1959[2]
 – Independence from
the United Kingdom
31 August 1963[3]
 – Merger with Malaysia 16 September 1963[3]
 – Separation from Malaysia 9 August 1965[3]
Area
 – Total 710 km2 (189th)
274 sq mi
 – Water (%) 1.444
Population
 – 2012 census 5,312,400[4]
 – Density 7,315[5]/km2 (3rd)
18,943/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2012 estimate
 – Total $327.557 billion[6]
 – Per capita $61,046[6]
GDP (nominal) 2012 estimate
 – Total $270.020 billion[6]
 – Per capita $50,323[6]
Gini (2009) positive decrease 47.8[7]
medium · 29th
HDI (2011) Increase 0.866[8]
very high · 26th
Currency Singapore dollar (SGD)
Time zone SST (UTC+8)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the left
Calling code +65
ISO 3166 code SG
Internet TLD .sg
a. Singapore is a city-state.